Білім және ғылымЖаңалықтарҚоғам

IN THE WORLD OF SOUNDS

p style=»text-align: right;»>Pleasant sounds wash away the dust

 of everyday life from my soul.

                                                             Berthold Auer Bach

It is difficult to imagine our life silent. We hear sounds everywhere: in the streets, at home, over the radio and on TV, in the shops, in the parks and in the concert halls, at the seaside, in the forest. We like to listen to them, spell them, enjoy singing and playing musical instruments. We cannot live without talking or listening. Some sounds are nice and lovely: mum’s voice, favourite music and birds’ songs. But sometimes sounds around us are very loud, unpleasant or even frightening. Modern life is impossible without sounds. We get up with the sound of alarm clock every morning; different sounds accompany us in the streets, public places, cars and bus stops, in the earphones of the young people. Young people often use CD-players, headphones, loudspeakers and mobile phones to listen to music. It is a great part of our life. But sometimes it can become dangerous because a lot of young people wear headphones and don’t hear another sounds, for example, sounds of the traffic on the roads and streets. That is why we decided to search what influence sounds make on people and young generation in particular. We suppose that we should use the calm quiet sounds in all their forms and arrangement during our lessons to improve the all-round development of modern teenagers.

The most popular and often sounds in our life are the sounds of music. There is practically no a person around us which does not like music. We asked our friends about kind of music they like: teenagers at the age of 12-17 preferred music of modern genres though some of them knew classical music and thought it was pleasant.

Music is the greatest phenomenon. Its relationship with the person is surprising. Melodious sounds make miracles – our soul awakens, our state and mood change. When music sounds appear somewhere, after a short while that place starts to fill in with a certain unique atmosphere, as music makes us happy or excited. Music dominates over our emotions. And emotions can overcome any physical pain. “Music, from its first sound, was born along with the creation of the world”, — ancient wise men claimed. All ancient doctrines of old civilizations contain similar statements and experience of impact of music on animals, plants and people. Pythagoras studied music in Egypt and made it an object of science in Italy. Having received intimate knowledge of the divine theory of music, Pythagoras based science about harmony of spheres, having approved music as the exact science. His followers used special melodies against rage and anger. They had their mathematics classes accompanied by music as they had noticed that it influenced on their intelligence and mental activities. Aristotle also claimed that by means of music, it was possible to influence definitely on formation of the person, and that music is capable to make great impact on the ethical part of human soul. The great scientist of the past Avicenna called a melody non-medical way of treatment along with a diet, smells and laughter.

In the III century, BC in Parthia the special musical and medical center was built. People were treated for melancholy and sincere experiences there. Ancient philosophers said: The Universe sounds, but the simple human hearing does not catch the heavenly soundings. They are reproduced by music — reflection of space harmony. Person is a part of the Universe. Special musical competitions and various physical exercises were popular in antique Greece. Ancient Greeks perceived music as a compound part of philosophy and almost all Greek philosophers of that time were interested in it. Ancient Greeks were being educated ideally in a special way which was an indissoluble set of fine physical, moral and spiritual qualities. According to this principle, each free citizen should have psychophysical harmony — the strong, trained body was required together with the certain spiritual development and moral purity. Music as a part of this social process was very important. Music brought up the growing generation, helped and facilitated life to the Greek people in everyday life. It was one of the main subjects in ancient Greek schools, stirred up its activity in sports trainings and competitions. The most important subjects of training, grammar (reading and the letter), gymnastics, music and sometimes drawing were very important for Greeks. Our ancestors placed music in number of general education subjects. As you can see, music was, first of all, an important active stimulator of the everyday activities and means of pleasant rest and entertainment. Different types of music are also mentioned in Plato, Aristotle, Pindar, Strabo, Lucian, Virgil, Aristophanes, Eschol, Plutarch and others world famous antique authors’ works. If we compare music with a medicine, then religious music will be an analgetic in the world of sounds, it relieves all kinds of pain. Singing of cheerful songs helps at cardiac illnesses, promotes longevity. However, the biggest effect on the person is rendered by Mozart’s melodies. The musical phenomenon that has not been searched completely up to nowadays was called the “Mozart’s effect”.

Mozart’s effect

The scientists, who were studying the influence of sounds on a human body and mental abilities, discovered some interesting facts. Listening to music written by W.A. Mozart improves person’s mood, common state, mathematical and logical abilities. Even rats found a way out of a labyrinth quicker, if they listened to Mozart’s music before. Besides, music of this great composer helps to heal a depression, eliminates intellectual tension, influences mentality, intelligence and work of the internal bodies. While listening to Mozart, the combination of gastric juice is changed by its influence. It means that it is possible to treat an ulcer and gastritis due to this kind of music. Therefore, W.A. Mozart’s music is a universal medicine.

Treating effects of music

What other works possess the same tremendous medical influence on person? A plenty of different researches showed:

– Mozart, Bach, Handel’s music sounds have a huge healing effect on people.

– I.S. Bach’s melodies make the calming and all-strengthening effect.

– P. I. Tchaikovsky’s music exempts soul from sufferings, unpleasant memories.

– D. D. Shostakovich’s music sounds help to keep negative emotions under control.

– It is possible to reduce stress listening to Schubert and Chopin’s masterpieces.

– Bizet, Strauss, Kalman, Legrand’s creations form the optimistic attitude to the surrounding world.

– The classics of a rock’n’roll style “Beatles”, Elvis Presley, Elton John’s music raises a vitality and normalizes blood pressure, helps to keep the neurological  system in order.

Each human organ vibrates in its own way, and its vibrations can coincide with rhythms and energy of certain sounds and musical instruments.

  • The piano sound has the calming effect and normalizes work of a thyroid gland.
  • The violin and violoncello tones up warmly and effects on the vascular system; besides, the violoncello influences kidneys function very much.
  • Sound of wooden wind instruments – an oboe, a clarinet, a flute — is useful for our liver, and the flute perfectly clears lungs.
  • Drums and harp are irreplaceable in cardiology: they restore a rhythm of heart and normalize the work of blood system.
  • Electronic tools works differently, sometimes a little bit weaker than acoustic, and therefore it is very useful to listen to “space” melodies for a relaxation.

The most popular and often sounds in our life are the sounds of music. There is practically no a person around us that does not like music. We asked our friends about kind of music they like. You can see the results of the survey on this diagram. One ancient wise man said: “Nothing changes customs and habits of people as the music does”. Music has always been one of the most inspired forms of art. The certain rhythm, melody, harmony, dynamics, a variety of sound combinations, colours and nuances transfer infinite scale of feelings and moods. It goes directly into soul and creates life of the person. It is music’s great strength and power. According to the contents, music can cause the most sublime changes in the personal feelings, or, on the contrary, can cause the most sinful and dark desires.

Music helps people to cope with a depression, grief or a bad mood. However, tastes and preferences can vary a lot. Different styles and sounds can impress or irritate people during their lives. Sometimes we get calmed listening to classics. The other days we might be frustrated and prefer to listen to hard rock. Physics allows us to understand why it occurs. The human brain does not really love high-frequency sounds. This fact can explain a wide popularity of a modern pop-music. It sounds at about 40-66 hertz. That is why most young people are addicted to the club music. Low frequencies that are used in this music do not strain and simply brainwash people.

However, it is necessary to know that music can influence the person not only positively, but also negatively. A lot of different researches were conducted by the faculty of acoustics of the Moscow State University,. The results showed that teenagers of the seventh form temporarily forgot the multiplication table after 10-minute listening to rock compositions. The listeners in concert halls could not answer rather simple questions like “What is your name?”, “Where are you now?”, “What year is it now?” Even 10-minute pleasure rock music at a volume of 100 decibels reduces sensitivity of an ear so a very loud music causes the partial loss of hearing ability. We noticed that all of the teenagers around listened to a very loud music and often did it using earphones. We listen to music practically all the time except sleeping!

Tiny MP3 players became super popular very quickly. But, perhaps, soon there will be a danger warning for health on them, as well as on cigarettes. English experts from Royal National Institute acted with such a proposal a couple of years ago. They have been studying the negative impacts of music and hearing disorders. They recommend entering the information about results of listening to music on MP3 players, and warn the listeners that a very loud music can lead to a premature hearing disorder or even to its loss. It is because of the high quality of the sound in modern MP3 players. New ones have a very high volume and quality of the sound. Therefore, people began to listen to music much more loudly and much longer than before -the capacity of memory cards allows doing it without interruption within long hours. Any loud sounds including music from a player, damage the so-called thin cages located in a snail — the internal part of an ear. They help to transfer sound information to a brain. If you were at a rock concert once, or listened to rather loud sounds, for example, shots of petards, then you might know that after them usual sounds seem to be slightly muffled to you. This is just because of the partial damage of the thin cages. The main danger of all MP3 players is while listening to music using them deterioration of hearing is not noticeable at once. “Results” will be obvious only in some years, when the treatment does not help any more. The British Research Organization dealing with problems of deterioration of hearing ability, declared that those who listens to MP3 players at a high volume (first of all, teenagers), risk to become deaf 30 years earlier, than generation of their parents.

Any sounds louder than 90 decibels can cause a deterioration of hearing ability — it is the scientific fact. The sound on volume exceeding 105 decibels can damage your hearing ability after 15 minutes of listening. The majority of MP3 players can make sounds with a force up to 120 decibels. It is louder than the noise produced by a lawn mower or an electric saw, and it is equal to noise of an ambulance car siren. For comparison: when we talk rather loudly our conversation (not with voices raised) sounds on average 60 decibels, a noise of the highway — 85 decibels, music in personal musical players -112 decibels.

How to keep hearing ability and not to refuse a player? There were numbers of disputes on this subject all over the world. What earphones are safer: external or internal? Researches showed that earphones inserted into an ear could increase sound level by 7-9 decibels. As to external earphones, their range is less, therefore they are considered to be little safer. But none of them could give us an absolute protection. It is much better if you control the sound level yourselves. Here are some useful instructions, which can help you keep your ears healthy:

  • it is necessary to follow the “60-60 rule” – not to listen to your MP3 player more than 60% of its volume;
  • not to listen to it longer than 60 minutes at once;
  • your loudness is considered normal if you can hear what people around are talking about;
  • people shouldn’t hear music in your earphones;
  • if you have to the raise your voice or shout, it means the volume in your earphones is very high.

Other significant problem of a sound noise is a problem of the loud, fast and dissonance music so popular with teens in the present time. Nearly all researches of the modern scientific institutions in different countries surely indicate a destructive impact of super loud sounds on an organism of any person. Experts call such kinds of music “music murderer” or “sound poison”. Music with arrhythmia, frequent dissonances, lack of a certain form is especially dangerous. The irritating music speeds up pulse, reduces force of warm reductions, narrows vessels and increases the arterial blood pressure. Noisy sounds and disharmonious overtones in a musical and sound range make a serious harm to our nervous system: it may cause hands shiver, visual acuity and hearing loss. Sounds with prevalence of dissonances in it and sharp sounding combinations of diverse sounds have a strong psycho-emotional pressure both on listeners and to performers. Finally, they can lead to serious mental problems.

It is no doubt that music is one of the most effective ways of finding own personality. According to this, cautions are fair: strange musical rhythms by no means are rather offensive. If we take, for example, the national melodies and rhythms developed in different cultures during a lot of millennia, it is possible to see: many representatives of this or that nationality feel emotional lift, improvement of their mood and health when hear sounds of a native folk music. The national melodies created for centuries, according to the scientists’ opinion, answer the original biological pulsations of each ethnos. Aggression of others rhythm can destroy a behavior of the person, trying to deprive a person of self-identification and harmony with the environment.

During our research, we made some experiments and got very interesting results. First, we listened to different types of music and fixed all our thoughts in the diary. Then we have read a lot of various researches concerning our topic. The most interesting was the “Mozart effect”. We held an experiment on ourselves. We had been watching for our state of mood and body. We had been listening to some Mozart’s best symphonies on the CD player during the one-month’s experiment. The results were striking! We noticed that when we were listening to the music we liked, we worked faster and more enthusiastically than when we listened to the hard rock music or another loud and  aggressive ones. It was also curious to know that low-frequency sounds negatively influence on the psycho-emotional condition of teenagers not only during listening to music. While working over the project we found out that practically all the loud and sharp sounds affect a weak teenage mentality negatively.

Noise and sounds become more and more massive and get destructive power and strength day by day. Whenever it is possible, avoid the musical and sound aggression; try to protect your health and health of other people. We suggest our friends to do it in different ways:

  • don’t listen to a very loud music;
  • try to relax and keep silent for a short while (min 30 min) at the day time;
  • try to avoid a big noise and any loud sounds in your bedroom, especially in the evenings;
  • try to listen to good samples of music;
  • try to listen to different genres of music and always analyze what music you listen to;
  • learn to play any musical instrument – it will enrich your life with new emotions and feelings.

The person has always to remember that the Nature is wise but fragile. When people interfere in its secrets, they should not break its laws. Besides, it is necessary to follow its rules and laws. Always remember about people around you, develop your body and mind, and keep growing not only physically but also culturally, see values of your life and the uniqueness of our Universe!

The possible solution of the problem:

  • We should listen to classical music in original or in modern arrangement for enriching our musical experience.
  • While listening to music of different genres it is good to analyze what you listen to.
  • To induce teenagers in listening to the serious academic music, it is necessary to inform them about the importance and usefulness of it for the person health and mind.

 

MussabekAlibek, KurbanovAnuar, 7th grade, lyceum № 24, Otegenbatyr, Ile district, Almaty region.

The supervisor of the project:Tussupova A.K.,

candidate of Phylology, senior lecturer of the Central Asian University.

The consultant of the studies: Telezhkina I.O., ESL teacher, lyceum №24

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